Unlike other drugs which act in the region of the synapse, local anesthetics are agents that reversibly block the generation and conduction of nerve impulses along a nerve fiber. In both the official chemical name and the proprietary name, a local anesthetic drug can be recognized by the "-caine" ending. The most recent research indicates that the local anesthetic binds to a phospholipid in the nerve membrane and inhibits the ability of the phospholipid to bind Ca +2 ions.
The drug-receptor reaction is essentially an exchange of the hydrogen bond between a drug molecule, surrounding water, and the receptor site. The agonist is a very close mimic and "fits" with the receptor site and is thus able to initiate a response. An antagonist drug interacts with the receptor site and blocks or depresses the normal response for that receptor because it only partially fits the receptor site and can not produce an effect.
Legume plants such as clover, alfalfa, and soybeans form nodules on the roots where nitrogen fixing bacteria take nitrogen from the air and convert it into ammonia, NH 3 . The ammonia is further converted by other bacteria first into nitrite ions, NO 2- , and then into nitrate ions, NO 3- . Plants utilize the nitrate ions as a nutrient or fertilizer for growth.
The most useful classification scheme divides the carbohydrates into groups according to the number of individual simple sugar units. Monosaccharides contain a single unit; disaccharides contain two sugar units; and polysaccharides contain many sugar units as in polymers - most contain glucose as the monosaccharide unit. Aldoses contain the aldehyde group - Monosaccharides in this group are glucose, galactose, ribose, and glyceraldehyde.
Amylose in starch is responsible for the formation of a deep blue color in the presence of iodine. Iodine - KI Reagent: Iodine is not very soluble in water, therefore the iodine reagent is made by dissolving iodine in water in the presence of potassium iodide. Iodine Test: When following the changes in some inorganic oxidation reduction reactions, iodine may be used as an indicator to follow the changes of iodide ion and iodine element.
Glycogen is the storage form of glucose in animals and humans which is analogous to the starch in plants. All of the monomer units are alpha-D-glucose, and all the alpha acetal links connect C # 1 of one glucose to C # 4 of the next glucose. The Alpha position is defined as the ether oxygen being on the opposite side of the ring as the C # 6. The glucose that is not used immediately is converted in the liver and muscles into glycogen for storage by the process of glycogenesis.
Since our knowledge of different regions of brain function and the neurotransmitters in the brain is limited, the explanations for the mechanisms of drug action may be vague. The misuse and abuse of amphetamines is a significant problem which may include the house wife taking diet pills, athletes desiring an improved performance, the truck driver driving non-stop coast to-coast, or a student cramming all night for an exam.
The binding of enkephalin or morphine-like drugs changes the shape of the nerve sending the impulse in such a fashion as to prevent the cell from releasing acetylcholine. And it is difficult to fight a war without analgesics so the Germans went to work and synthesized a number of medications in use today, including demerol and darvon which is structurally simular to methadone.
As energy passes to a higher tropic level, approximately 90% of the useful energy is lost. At each tropic level in a food chain, energy is used by the organisms at that level to maintain their own life process. Because of the 2nd law of energy, some energy is lost to the surroundings as heat. it is estimated that in going from one tropic level to the next, about 90 % of the energy is lost. In moving to the next tropic level, only 10 % of the original energy is available.
Note that as a group, the unsaturated fatty acids have lower melting points than the saturated fatty acids. On the other hand, the introduction of one or more double bonds in the hydrocarbon chain in unsaturated fatty acids results in one or more "bends" in the molecule. Examine the table on the left, if you want the most unsaturated fatty acids in your diet, which is the most healthy, which fat or oil should you use the most?