On the above graph, which depicts the decay curve for carbon-14, you can draw a line from 1988 up to the curve and then from this intersection over to the percent value on the Y axis. Draw a line from this intersection down to the years and the value obtained is about 1000 AD, which means that the Shroud of Turin was probably created in the Middle Ages.
The π bond of the carbonyl group can act as a base to a strong inorganic acid due to the distortion of the electrons from the electronegativity difference between the oxygen atom and the carbon atom and also the resonance dipole. The water will not be a viable nucleophile that will reverse the reaction because its concentration will be low compared to the concentration of the methanol.
The complex vibration that a molecule is making is really a superposition of a number of much simpler basic vibrations called “normal modes”. Before we take up any further description of “normal modes” it is necessary to discuss the degress of freedom. The required number of “normal modes” is equal to the vibrational degree of freedom avaible so the number of modes for a nonlinear molecule is 3N-6 and that for a linear molecule is 3N-5.
The most common biobatteries are the lemon or potatoe battery and the frog or ox-head battery better described as a "muscular pile". In a lemon cell, the energy for the battery is not produced by the lemon but by the metal electrodes.