A good example is K + . The membrane is very permeable to K + and the [K + ] inside the cell is great, therefore a positive charge is flowing out of the cell along with K + . The [K + ] inside the cell decreases causing the concentration gradient to flow towards the outside of the cell.
Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC): This fuel cell is similar to the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell; however, instead of using gaseous hydrogen as the fuel, liquid methanol is used. Explanation: As explained by the table in the 'Different Types of Fuel Cells' section, the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is the most efficient with an efficiency of 50-65%.
These hydrogen and hydronium ions then get close enough to the Pt electrode (on the platinized surface of this electrode) to where a hydrogen is attracted to the electrons in the metal and forms a hydrogen atom. It is necessary to have the solution saturated because this allows for the activity to be fixed by the potassium chloride and the voltage to be lower and closer to the SHE.
AX 6 Shape: octahedral Steric Number: Lone Pairs: Polar/NonPolar: NonPolar Hybridization: sp 3 d 2 Example: SF 6 NOTES: This molecule is made up of 6 equally spaced sp 3 d 2 hybrid orbitals arranged at 90 o angles. The shape of the orbitals is octahedral. Since there is an atom at the end of each orbital, the shape of the molecule is also octahedral.
AX 4 E 2 Shape: square planar Steric Number: Lone Pairs: Polar/NonPolar: NonPolar Hybridization: sp 3 d 2 Example: XeF 4 NOTES: This molecule is made up of 6 equally spaced sp 3 d 2 hybrid orbitals arranged at 90 o angles. The shape of the orbitals is octahedral. Two orbitals contain lone pairs of electrons on opposite sides of the central atom. The remaining four atoms connected to the central atom gives the molecule a square planar shape.
Unlike strong acids/bases, weak acids and weak bases do not completely dissociate (separate into ions) at equilibrium in water, so calculating the pH of these solutions requires consideration of a unique ionization constant and equilibrium concentrations. Although this is more difficult than calculating the pH of strong acid or base solutions, most acids and bases are weak. The same basic method can be used to determine the pH of aqueous solutions of many different weak acids and bases.
AX 3 E 2 Shape: T-shaped Steric Number: Lone Pairs: sp 3 d NOTES: This molecule is made up of 5 sp 3 d hybrid orbitals. Three orbitals are arranged around the equator of the molecule with bond angles of 120 o . Two orbitals are arranged along the vertical axis at 90 o from the equatorial orbitals. The shape of the orbitals is trigonal bipyramidal. Two of the equatorial orbitals contain lone pairs of electrons. The three atoms are arranged around the central atom to form a T-shaped molecule.
Where Y is the absolute yield, N is the number of atoms a given nucleus formed, and P is the number of fission events. The fissile material is encased in a solid cladding, made of Zircalloy, to contain both the fuel and the resulting fission products and keep then from escaping into the moderator, coolant, or anywhere outside the cladding.
Notice the large pile of coal on the left side of the plant and the three smokestacks, each one taller than the previous. Turbine-Generator: The super heated steam is used to spin the blades of a turbine, which in turn is used in the generator to turn a coil of wires within a circular arrangements of magnets. Alternate method is to use a very tall cooling tower, where the evaporation of water falling through the tower provides the cooling effect.