Chapter 2: Structure and Reactivity of Acids and Bases, Polar and Nonpolar Molecules Reactions of Alcohols with Strong Acids-Alkyloxonium Ions in Substitution and Elimination Reactions of Alcohols Chapter 9: Further Reactions of Alcohols and the Chemistry of Ethers Section 11.11: Preparation of Alkenes by Dehydration of Alcohols Section 12.3: Nucleophilic Character of the ? Bond-Electrophilic Addition of Hydrogen Halides Section 17.5: Reactivity of the Carbonyl Group-Mechanisms of Addition
4.1 Functional Groups 139 4.2 IUPAC Nomenclature of Alkyl Halides 141 4.3 IUPAC Nomenclature of Alcohols 142 4.4 Classes of Alcohols and Alkyl Halides 142 4.5 Bonding in Alcohols and Alkyl Halides 143 4.6 Physical Properties of Alcohols and Alkyl Halides: Intermolecular Forces 144 4.7 Preparation of Alkyl Halides from Alcohols and Hydrogen Halides 148 4.8 Mechanism of the Reaction of Alcohols with Hydrogen Halides 149 4.9 Potential Energy Diagrams for Multistep Reactions: The SN 1 Mechanism 154…
Nonaxial groups C n groups D n groups C nv groups C 2v C 3v C 4v C 5v C 6v C 7v C 8v C nh groups C 2h C 3h C 4h C 5h C 6h D nh groups D 2h D 3h D 4h D 5h D 6h D 7h D 8h D nd groups D 2d D 3d D 4d D 5d D 6d D 7d D 8d S n groups S 10 S 12 Cubic groups Linear groups C ∞v D ∞h
Acidities of Common Compounds at room temperature (25 o C) Hydrogen Iodide, HI (strongest acid) Sulfuric Acid, H 2 SO 4 Hydronium ion, H 3 O + Acetic Acid, CH 3 COOH Water, H 2 O Methane, CH 4 (weakest acid) pK a HA = Acetic acid H 2 A + = GlycineH + H 2 A + HA + H + H 2 A = Maleic acid H + + A 2− H 3 A = Citric acid HA = Boric acid HA H + + A − H 3 A = Phosphoric acid H 3 A H 2 A − + H + H 2 A − HA 2− + H + A 3− + H + HA − = Hydrogen sulfate H 2 A = Oxalic acid H 2 A HA − + H + HA − A 2− + H +
The most critical element of any measurement process is the relationship between a single measurement and the reference base for the unit of measurement. The reference base is the ultimate source of authority for the measurement unit. Reference bases for fundamental units of measurement (length, mass, temperature, voltage, and time) and some derived units (such as pressure, force, flow rate, etc.) are maintained by national and regional standards laboratories.
An analysis of the check standard data is the basis for quantifying random errors in the measurement process -- particularly time-dependent errors. Drawback of short-term standard deviations An individual short-term standard deviation will not be a reliable estimate of precision if the degrees of freedom is less than ten, but the individual estimates can be pooled over the K days to obtain a more reliable estimate.
With very precise instrumentation, it is not unusual to find that the variability exhibited by the measurement process from day-to-day often exceeds the precision of the instrument because of small changes in environmental conditions and handling techniques which cannot be controlled or corrected in the measurement process.
There is nothing intrinsic to the calibration procedure that will improve precision, and the best strategy, before committing to a particular instrument, is to estimate the instrument's precision in the environment of interest to decide if it is good enough for the precision required.