Organic Chemistry is fun since there are so many different types of reactions that can be done. Substitution Reactions Effects of Solvent, Leaving Group, and Nucleophile on Unimolecular Substitution Stereochemistry SN2 Reactions Kinetics of Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions Elimination Reactions Electrophilic Alkene Addition Mechanism Addition Reactions The Generalized Electrophilic Addition Oxymercuration-Demercuration: A Special Electrophilic Addition Rearrangement Reactions
Enzymes are Catalysts that drive reaction rates forward. Most, but not all, are made up of amino acid chains called proteins that accelerate the rate of reactions in chemical systems. Their functionality depends on how the proteins are folded as to what they bind and react with. For protein-based catalysts, amino acid polarization lies at the core of catalytic activity. General Enzymatic Kinetics Michaelis-Menten Kinetics Michaelis-Menten Kinetics and Briggs-Haldane Kinetics Sigmoid Kinetics
Photoreceptors are photosensing proteins that respond to the surrounding light environment aroun. Upon light absorption, photorceptors can go through large scale conformational changes, which happen via several intermediates over multiple timescales. Many studies have been done, and the sutdy of photoreceptors can to characterize the transient structural deformation of a protein environment that propagates and initiates the signal transduction pathways. Vision and Light
Photosynthesis overview The Light Reactions Photosystem II Photosystem II 1 Photosystem II 2 Photosystem II 3 Outside Links Borrell, Peter; Dixon, Denis T. "Electrode potential diagrams and their use in the Hill-Bendall or Z-scheme for photosynthesis." Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 83.
Nonprotein components of certain enzymes are called cofactors. If the cofactor is organic, then it is called a coenzyme. Coenzymes are relatively small molecules compared to the protein part of the enzyme and many of the coenzymes are derived from vitamins. The coenzymes make up a part of the active site, since without the coenzyme, the enzyme will not function. Cobalamin Cobalamin 1 Cobalamin 3 FAD - Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Vitamin A: Beta-Carotene