Chemical reactions are the processes by which chemicals interact to form new chemicals with different compositions. Simply stated, a chemical reaction is the process where reactants are transformed into products. How chemicals react is dictated by the chemical properties of the element or compound- the ways in which a compound or element undergoes changes in composition. Chemical Reactions Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter Reactions in Solution Stoichiometry and Balancing Reactions
Mass spectrometry is an analytic method that employs ionization and mass analysis of compounds in order to determine the mass, formula and structure of the compound being analyzed. A mass analyzer is the component of the mass spectrometer that takes ionized masses and separates them based on charge to mass ratios and outputs them to the detector where they are detected and later converted to a digital output. Mass Analyzers (Mass Spectrometry)
Organic Chemistry is fun since there are so many different types of reactions that can be done. Substitution Reactions Effects of Solvent, Leaving Group, and Nucleophile on Unimolecular Substitution Stereochemistry SN2 Reactions Kinetics of Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions Elimination Reactions Electrophilic Alkene Addition Mechanism Addition Reactions The Generalized Electrophilic Addition Oxymercuration-Demercuration: A Special Electrophilic Addition Rearrangement Reactions
Advanced Biophysical Chemistry use different techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance, x-ray crystallography, ultra-fast spectroscopy, as well as statistical and quantum mechanical theory to study the molecular details of important biological processes, such as: protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions, protein structure and function, enzyme mechanisms, photosynthesis and neuronal transduction.
Enzymes are Catalysts that drive reaction rates forward. Most, but not all, are made up of amino acid chains called proteins that accelerate the rate of reactions in chemical systems. Their functionality depends on how the proteins are folded as to what they bind and react with. For protein-based catalysts, amino acid polarization lies at the core of catalytic activity. General Enzymatic Kinetics Michaelis-Menten Kinetics Michaelis-Menten Kinetics and Briggs-Haldane Kinetics Sigmoid Kinetics
Photoreceptors are photosensing proteins that respond to the surrounding light environment aroun. Upon light absorption, photorceptors can go through large scale conformational changes, which happen via several intermediates over multiple timescales. Many studies have been done, and the sutdy of photoreceptors can to characterize the transient structural deformation of a protein environment that propagates and initiates the signal transduction pathways. Vision and Light