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  • Updated 6 months ago - 316 words
    Olestra is a fat substitute that has the properties of a fat in flavor and texture, but is indigestible - hence a fake fat. In 1996, the FDA approved the use of olestra in potato chips, tortilla chips, crackers and fried snacks, as it is the only heat stable fat substitute for fried foods. Since olestra is such a large nonpolar molecule, it may dissolve or combine with some of the fat soluble vitamins such as A, D, E, and K, and carotenoids.
    http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Biological_Chemistry/Lipids/Case_Studies/Case_Study%3A_Olestra
  • Updated 6 months ago - 315 words
    If E is a strong electrophile, as in the first equation, it will attack the nucleophilic oxygen of the carboxylic acid directly, giving a positively charged intermediate which then loses a proton. If E is a weak electrophile, such as an alkyl halide, it is necessary to convert the carboxylic acid to the more nucleophilic carboxylate anion to facilitate the substitution. The reaction is easily followed by the evolution of nitrogen gas and the disappearance of the reagent's color.
    http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Organic_Chemistry/Carboxylic_Acids/Reactions_of_Carboxylic_Acids/Reactions_of_Carboxylic_Acids/Substitution_of_the_Hydroxyl_Hydrogen
  • Updated 6 months ago - 20 words
    Epoxidation Hydroxylation Oxidative Cleavage of Double Bonds Contributors William Reusch, Professor Emeritus (Michigan State U.), Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry
    http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Organic_Chemistry/Hydrocarbons/Alkenes/Reactions_of_Alkenes/Stereoselectivity_in_Addition_Reactions_to_Double_Bonds/Oxidations
  • Updated 6 months ago - 99 words
    The stereoselectivity of Brønsted acid addition is sensitive to experimental conditions such as temperature and reagent concentration. The selectivity is often anti, but reports of syn selectivity and non-selectivity are not uncommon. Of all the reagents discussed here, these strong acid additions (E = H in the following equation) come closest to proceeding by the proposed two-step mechanism in which a discrete carbocation intermediate is generated in the first step.
    http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Organic_Chemistry/Hydrocarbons/Alkenes/Reactions_of_Alkenes/Stereoselectivity_in_Addition_Reactions_to_Double_Bonds/Br%C3%B8nsted_Acid_Additions
  • Updated 6 months ago - 600 words
    We can account both for the high stereoselectivity and the lack of rearrangement in these reactions by proposing a stabilizing interaction between the developing carbocation center and the electron rich halogen atom on the adjacent carbon. The positive charge is delocalized over all the atoms of the ring, but should be concentrated at the more substituted carbon (carbocation stability), and this is the site to which the nucleophile will bond.
    http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Organic_Chemistry/Hydrocarbons/Alkenes/Reactions_of_Alkenes/Stereoselectivity_in_Addition_Reactions_to_Double_Bonds/Addition_Reactions_Initiated_by_Electrophilic_Halogen
  • Updated 6 months ago - 1,173 words
    Since boron is electron deficient (it does not have a valence shell electron octet) the reagent itself is a Lewis acid and can bond to the pi-electrons of a double bond by displacement of the ether moiety from the solvated monomer. Indeed, this hydride shift is believed to occur concurrently with the initial bonding to boron, as shown by the transition state drawn below the equation, so the discrete intermediate shown in the equation is not actually formed.
    http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Organic_Chemistry/Hydrocarbons/Alkenes/Reactions_of_Alkenes/Addition_Reactions_of_Alkenes/Addition_of_Lewis_Acids_(Electrophilic_Reagents)
  • Updated 6 months ago - 233 words
    The line extending off without anything connected is the line that shows this is a group, which should be attached to something. For example, one might have phenyl chloride (C 6 H 5 Cl, also called chlorobenzene) or one might have benzyl chloride (C 6 H 5 CH 2 Cl). (The structures of these two compounds are shown below in Figure 2.) The phenyl group is based simply on benzene, with one H removed. The benzyl group is based on methylbenzene (toluene), with one H removed from the methyl group.
    http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Organic_Chemistry/Fundamentals/The_phenyl_group
  • Updated 6 months ago - 467 words
    This is the first semester in a two-semester introductory course focused on current theories of structure and mechanism in organic chemistry, their historical development, and their basis in experimental observation. Coping with Smallness and Scanning Probe... Reality and the Orbital Approximation Oxygen and the Chemical Revolution... Valence Theory and Constitutional Structure... Preparing Single Enantiomers and... [ high bandwidth ] [ medium bandwidth ] [ mp3 ]
    http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Organic_Chemistry/Videos
  • Updated 6 months ago - 863 words
    The resulting amine substituent strongly activates an aromatic ring and directs electrophilic substitution to ortho & para locations. (iii) The activating character of an amine substituent may be attenuated by formation of an amide derivative (reversible), or even changed to deactivating and meta-directing by formation of a quaternary-ammonium salt (irreversible). (iv) Conversion of an aryl amine to a diazonium ion intermediate allows it to be replaced by a variety of different groups (includin…
    http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Organic_Chemistry/Amines/Reactions_of_Amines/Reactions_of_Aryl_Diazonium_Salts
  • Updated 6 months ago - 444 words
    The radical addition process is unfavorable for HCl and HI because one of the chain steps becomes endothermic (the second for HCl & the first for HI). RCH 2 (CH 3 )CH· + CH 3 CH=CH 2 —> RCH 2 (CH 3 )CH-CH 2 (CH 3 )CH· + CH 3 CH=CH 2 —> RCH 2 (CH 3 )CHCH 2 (CH 3 )CH-CH 2 (CH 3 )CH· —> etc.
    http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Organic_Chemistry/Hydrocarbons/Alkenes/Reactions_of_Alkenes/Free_Radical_Reactions_of_Alkanes/Addition_of_Radicals_to_Alkenes
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