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We are all surrounded by matter on a daily basis. Anything that we use, touch, eat, etc. is an example of matter. Matter can be defined or described as anything that takes up space, and it is composed of miniscule particles called atoms. It must display the two properties of mass and inertia.
The different types of matter can be distinguished through two components: composition and properties. The composition of matter refers to the different components of matter along with their relative proportions. The properties of matter refer to the qualities/attributes that distinguish one sample of matter from another. These properties are generally grouped into two categories: physical or chemical.
Figure 1: Visual With Examples. Content from S.M.
Physical Property: A physical property is one that is displayed without any change in composition. (Intensive or Extensive)
Intensive properties: A physical property that will be the same regardless of the amount of matter.
Extensive Properties: A physical property that will change if the amount of matter changes.
Change in which the matter's physical appearance is altered, but composition remains unchanged. (Change in state of matter)
Three main states of matter are: Solid, Liquid, Gas
Example 1: Physical Change
When liquid water (\(H_2O\)) freezes into a solid state (ice), it appears changed; However, this change is only physical as the the composition of the constituent molecules is the same: 11.19% hydrogen and 88.81% oxygen by mass.
Figure 2: Ice Melting is a physical change
Example 2: Corrosion of Metals
Corrosion is the unwanted oxidation of metals resulting in metal oxides.
Magnesium + Oxygen → Magnesium Oxide
\[2 Mg + O_2 \rightarrow 2 MgO\]
Iron + Oxygen → Iron Oxide (Rust)
\[4 Fe + 3O_2 \rightarrow 2 Fe_2O_3\]
Using the components of composition and properties, we have the ability to distinguish one sample of matter from the others.
5. Which of the following are examples of matter?
6. The formation of gas bubbles is a sign of what type of change?
1)chemical change 2) chemical property, physical change 3) physical change 4) physical property 5) All of the above 6) chemical 7) False 8) True 9) No 10) physical property
This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number 1246120