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Copyright (c) 2006-2014 MindTouch Inc.
This file and accompanying files are licensed under the MindTouch Master Subscription Agreement (MSA).
At any time, you shall not, directly or indirectly: (i) sublicense, resell, rent, lease, distribute, market, commercialize or otherwise transfer rights or usage to: (a) the Software, (b) any modified version or derivative work of the Software created by you or for you, or (c) MindTouch Open Source (which includes all non-supported versions of MindTouch-developed software), for any purpose including timesharing or service bureau purposes; (ii) remove or alter any copyright, trademark or proprietary notice in the Software; (iii) transfer, use or export the Software in violation of any applicable laws or regulations of any government or governmental agency; (iv) use or run on any of your hardware, or have deployed for use, any production version of MindTouch Open Source; (v) use any of the Support Services, Error corrections, Updates or Upgrades, for the MindTouch Open Source software or for any Server for which Support Services are not then purchased as provided hereunder; or (vi) reverse engineer, decompile or modify any encrypted or encoded portion of the Software.
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Organisms derive the majority of their energy from the Kreb's Cycle, also known as the TCA cycle. The Kreb's Cycle is an aerobic process consisting of eight definite steps. In order to enter the Kreb's Cycle pyruvate must first be converted into Acetyl-CoA by pyruvate dehydrogenase complex found in the mitochondria.
In the presence of oxygen organisms are capable of using the Kreb's Cycle. The reason oxygen is required is because the NADH and [FADH2] produced in the Kreb's Cycle are able to be oxydized in the electron transport chain (ETC) thus replenishing the supply of NAD+ and [FAD].
In order for pyruvate from glycolysis to enter the Kreb's Cycle it must first be converted into acetyl-CoA by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex which is an oxidative process wherein NADH and CO2 are formed. Another source of acetyl-CoA is beta oxidation of fatty acids.
Acetyl-CoA enters teh Kreb Cycle when it is joined to oxaloacetate by citrate synthase to produce citrate. This process requires the input of water. Oxaloacetate is the final metabolite of the Kreb Cycle and it joins again to start the cycle over again, hence the name Kreb's Cycle. This is known as the committed step
Citrate is then converted into isocitrate by the enzyme aconitase. This is accomplished by the removal and addition of water to yield an isomer.
Isocitrate is converted into alpha-ketogluterate by isocitrate dehydrogenase. The byproducts of which are NADH and CO2.
Apha-ketogluterate is then converted into succynl-CoA by alpha-ketogluterate dehydrogenase. NADH and CO2 are once again produced.
Succynl-CoA is then converted into succinate by succynl-CoA synthetase which yields one ATP per succynl-CoA.
Succinate coverts into fumerate by way of the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase and [FAD] is reduced to [FADH2] which is a prosthetic group of succinate dehydrogenase. Succinate dehydrogenase is a direct part of the ETC. It is also known as electron carrier II.
Fumerate is then converted to malate by hydration with the use of fumerase.
Malate is converted into oxaloacetate by malate dehydrogenase the byproducts of which are NADH.
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