If you like us, please share us on social media.
The latest UCD Hyperlibrary newsletter is now complete, check it out.

ChemWiki: The Dynamic Chemistry E-textbook > Inorganic Chemistry > Coordination Chemistry > Ligands

Copyright (c) 2006-2014 MindTouch Inc.

This file and accompanying files are licensed under the MindTouch Master Subscription Agreement (MSA).

At any time, you shall not, directly or indirectly: (i) sublicense, resell, rent, lease, distribute, market, commercialize or otherwise transfer rights or usage to: (a) the Software, (b) any modified version or derivative work of the Software created by you or for you, or (c) MindTouch Open Source (which includes all non-supported versions of MindTouch-developed software), for any purpose including timesharing or service bureau purposes; (ii) remove or alter any copyright, trademark or proprietary notice in the Software; (iii) transfer, use or export the Software in violation of any applicable laws or regulations of any government or governmental agency; (iv) use or run on any of your hardware, or have deployed for use, any production version of MindTouch Open Source; (v) use any of the Support Services, Error corrections, Updates or Upgrades, for the MindTouch Open Source software or for any Server for which Support Services are not then purchased as provided hereunder; or (vi) reverse engineer, decompile or modify any encrypted or encoded portion of the Software.

A complete copy of the MSA is available at http://www.mindtouch.com/msa


Ligands are ions or neutral molecules that bond to a central metal atom or ion. Ligands act as Lewis bases (electron pair donors), and the central atom acts as a Lewis acid (electron pair acceptor). Ligands have at least one donor atom with an electron pair used to form covalent bonds with the central atom. Ligands can be anions, cations, or neutral molecules.

Monodentate Ligands

A monodentate ligand has only one donor atom used to bond to the central metal atom or ion. The term "monodentate" can be translated as "one tooth," referring to the ligand binding to the center through only one atom. Some examples of monodentate ligands are: chloride ions (referred to as chloro when it is a ligand), water (referred to as aqua when it is a ligand), hydroxide ions (referred to as hydroxo when it is a ligand), and ammonia (referred to as ammine when it is a ligand).

monodentate ligand1.JPG        

                 Fig. 1. Central atom with six monodentate ligands attached. (Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.)   

Bidentate Ligands

Bidentate ligands have two donor atoms which allow them to bind to a central metal atom or ion at two points. Common examples of bidentate ligands are ethylenediamine (en), and the oxalate ion (ox). Shown below is a diagram of ethylenediamine: the nitrogen (blue) atoms on the edges each have two free electrons that can be used to bond to a central metal atom or ion.


Fig. 2. Ethylenediamine an example of a bidentate ligand. (Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.)

Polydentate Ligands

Polydentate ligands range in the number of atoms used to bond to a central metal atom or ion. EDTA, a hexadentate ligand, is an example of a polydentate ligand that has six donor atoms with electron pairs that can be used to bond to a central metal atom or ion.


EDTA is a polydentate ligand. (Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.)


Chelation is a process in which a polydentate ligand bonds to a metal ion, forming a ring. The complex produced by this process is called a chelate, and the polydentate ligand is referred to as a chelating agent.

chelate 1.JPG

Metal-EDTA Chelate. (Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.)

Ligand Nomenclature

For a more in-depth study of ligand nomenclature, read the module on Nomenclature of Coordination Complexes

  1. If a complex has an ion ligand, an "-o" ending is added. For example, "-ide" is changed to "-o," "-ite" is changed to "-ito", and "-ate" to "-ato." Hence, the bromide ion (Br-) becomes bromo, the nitrite ion (NO2-) becomes nitrito, and the sulfate ion (SO42-) becomes sulfato.
  2. When a complex has a neutral molecule ligand, the molecule keeps its original name. For example, ethylenediamine is a ligand, and the ligand is still called ethylendiamine.
  3. Prefixes mono=1, di=2, tri=3, tetra=4, penta=5, and hexa=6, are used to specify the number of ligands. If a ligand name has a prefix within itself such as ethylendiamine, place a parenthesis around the name and add bis=2, tris=3, tetrakis=4, in front of the molecule. For example, if there was 2 (en) molecules, the name would be bis(ethylenediamine).
  4. When naming a complex, ligands are the first to be named. If there is more than one ligand, list them in alphabetical order. Next comes the metal ion or atom. The oxidation state follows the name in roman numerals.                                    


  1. Do ligands act like Lewis acids or Lewis bases? Why?
  2. Do ligands form ionic bonds with the central metal atom?
  3. What are chelating agents?
  4. What is a monodentate ligand?
  5. Describe polydentate ligands and provide an example.
  6. What are hexadentate ligands?
  7. Name this complex [Cu(NH3)4]SO4.
  8. Name this complex  [Co(en)3](NO3)2.


  1. Ligands act like Lewis bases because they share their electron pairs (electron donors) with the central metal atom.
  2. No, ligands do not form ionic bonds the with the central metal atom. Rather, they form covalent bonds with the central metal atom because they share electron pairs.
  3. Chelating agents are ligands that have two or more atoms with donating electron pairs that are able to attach a metal ion at the same time. These chelating ligands are monodentate and tridentate ligands
  4. A monodentate ligand is a ligand that uses only one pair of electrons to bond to the central metal atom or ion.
  5. Polydentate ligands are ligands which are able to donate more than two electron pairs to the central metal they bond to. EDTA is an example of a polydentate ligand.
  6. Hexadentate ligands are ligands which have six lone pairs of electrons which can all bond to the central metal atom.
  7. tetraamminecopper(II) sulfate
  8. Tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(II) nitrate


  1. Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura. General Chemistry Principles & Modern Applications. Prentice Hall. New Jersey, 2007
  2. Cox, Tony. (2004). Instant notes in inorganic chemistry. Oxford, UK: Taylor & Francis.
  3. Libraries, Association, Robert Williams, and J. Silva. Bringing chemistry to life. Oxford University Press, USA, 1999. Print.
  4. Moeller, Therald, Douville, Judith, & Libraries, Association. (1988). Inorganic Chemistry: A Modern Introduction. Amer Library Assn.
  5. Bowker, R., Warmus, Mieczysław, Muzzy, Adrienne, LOCALIZADO, AUTOR, Hopkinson, Barbara, Saur, K, Izod, Irene, Hopkinson, Barbara, Saur, K, Books, K, & Company, K. (1994). Inorganic Chemistry Concepts. K G Saur Verlag Gmbh & Co.
  6. Porterfield, William. (1984). Inorganic chemistry. Addison Wesley Publishing Company.

Outside Sources

  1. Electronic Structure of Coordination Complexes http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mAPFhZpnV58
  2. Transition Metal Complexes http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UvWBuryKlSk&feature=related
  3. Coordination Complexes A http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v7MbkMi3aMQ&feature=related
  4. Coordination Complexes B http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nYHHpONul80&feature=related
  5. Molecular docking simulation: multiple ligand simultaneous docking http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oeqJo9xYviY
  6. Identification of Ligands for Protein Purification http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=429j3Ikxxy0
  7. In Scopus. "ScienceDirect - Analytical Biochemistry : LIGAND: A Versatile Computerized Approach for Characterization of Ligand-binding Systems." ScienceDirect - Home. Web. 02 June 2010. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science...b01ccf162fea5e>.
  8. "Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment: RNA Ligands to Bacteriophage T4 DNA Polymerase -- Tuerk and Gold 249 (4968): 505 -- Science." Science/AAAS | Scientific Research, News and Career Information. Web. 02 June 2010. <http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/conten...i;249/4968/505>.
  9. "Differential Ligand Activation of Estrogen Receptors ER{alpha} and ER at AP1 Sites -- Paech Et Al. 277 (5331): 1508 -- Science." Science/AAAS | Scientific Research, News and Career Information. Web. 02 June 2010. <http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/conten.../277/5331/1508>.
  10. Green, M.L.H. A new approach to the formal classification of covalent compounds of the elements. (1995) Journal of Organometallic Chemistry


  • Harjeet Bassi (UCD)

Viewing 1 of 1 comments: view all
Color and Magnetism

Color changes observed in solutions are caused by changes that occur in the ligands attatched to the metal ion or atom. While these changes occur, the oxidation state of the metal ion remains constant.
Spectrochemical Series

The spectrochemical series is the arrangement of ligands based on how large or small of a field splitting energy they create between d-orbitals in coordination complexes. In most cases, the spectrochemical series is arranged from left to right, where the left-side ligands create the smallest d-orbital splittings (strong field ligands) and the right-side ligands create the least amount of d-orbital splitting (weak field ligands). Read more about this in these two modules: Spectrochemical Series, Spectrochemical Series.

I- < Br- < S2- < SCN- < Cl- < NO3- < F- < OH- < C2O42- < H2O < NCS- < CH3CN < NH3 < en < bipy < phen < NO2- < PPh3 < CN- < CO
Posted 19:24, 24 Apr 2014
Viewing 1 of 1 comments: view all
You must to post a comment.
Last Modified
19:36, 24 Apr 2014



(not set)

Creative Commons License Unless otherwise noted, content in the UC Davis ChemWiki is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States License. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at copyright@ucdavis.edu. Questions and concerns can be directed toward Prof. Delmar Larsen (dlarsen@ucdavis.edu), Founder and Director. Terms of Use