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Tin, an element in Group 14 (The Carbon Family) of the periodic table, has mainly metallic properties. Tin has atomic number 50 and an atomic mass of 118.710 atomic mass units. Tin, or Sn (from the Latin name Stannum) has been known since ancient times, although it could only be obtained by extraction from its ore. Tin shares chemical similarities with germanium and lead. Tin mining began in Australia in 1872 and today Tin is used extensively in industry and commerce.
Basic Properties of Tin
|color||white with blueish tinge|
|hardness||softer than gold, harder than lead|
|atomic radius||140 pm|
|melting point||232 degrees Celsius|
|boiling point||2623 degrees Celsius|
|electrical conductivity||about 1/7th that of silver|
|first ionization energy||709 kJ/mol|
|Ionic Radius||93 pm|
|Hydrogen||Tin not affected|
|Nitrogen||Tin absorbs it instead of hydrogen in electric discharge|
|Oxygen||When heated in it, Tin produces stannic oxide|
|Argon||No sign of a combination of Tin with Argon|
|Fluorine||Does not react with Tin at low temperatures, but at 100 degrees Celsius they form stannic fluoride|
|Chlorine||Acts on Tin at room temperature|
|Bromine||Acts on tin at room temperature|
|Sulfur||Unites directly with Tin when heated|
|Selenium||Reacts vigorously with Tin|
|Tellurium||Reacts vigorously with Tin|
|Nitrogen||Forms on compound by direct union with Tin|
|Arsenic||Reacts with tin under heat and light|
|Antimony||Is dissolved by molten Tin|
1. Reaction with oxygen
Sn(s) + O2(g) → SnO2(s)
2. Reaction with water (steam)
Sn(s) + 2H2O(g) → SnO2(s) + 2H2(g)
There are 10 known stable isotopes of Tin, the most of any elements on the periodic table. This high number of stable isotopes could be attributed to the fact that the atomic number of Tin (50) is a 'magic number' in nuclear physics.
Allotropes of Tin.
Tin has 3 allotropes: alpha, beta and gamma tin. Alpha tin is the most unstable form of tin. Beta tin is the most commonly found allotrope of tin and gamma tin only exists at very high temperatures.
Oxidation States of Tin
Tin, although it is found in Group 14 of the periodic table, is consistent with the trend found in Group 13 where the lower oxidation state is favored farther down a group. Tin can exist in two oxidation states, +2 and +4, but Tin displays a tendency to exist in the +4 oxidation state.
Common Compounds of Tin
Tin forms two main oxides, SnO and SnO2 (amphoteric).
Electron Configuration of Tin
Tin has a ground state electron configuration of 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p2 and can form covalent tin (II) compounds with its two unpaired p-electrons. In the three dimensional figure below, the first and most inner electron shell is represented by blue electrons, the second electron shell made up of eight electrons is represented by red electrons, the third shell containing eighteen electrons is represented with green electrons, and the next outer electron again contains eighteen electrons and represented in purple.
Nearly half of the tin metal produced is used in solders, which are low melting point alloys used to join wires. Solders are important in electrician work and plumbing. Tin is also used as a coating for lead, zinc, and steel to prevent corrosion. Tin cans are widely used for storing foods; the first tin can was used in London in 1812.
Find the oxidation state of tin in the following compounds:
a. SnCl^2 answer:2
b. SnO^2 answer:4
Write an equation for the reaction of tin with water. Under what conditions does this reaction take place?
answer: Sn(s) + 2H2O(g) → SnO2(s) + 2H2(g) Reaction takes place if water is heated to a high temperature to form steam.
Which of these reactions take place.
a. tin with oxygen ANSWER: YES
b. tin with hydrogen ANSWER: NO
c. tin with argon ANSWER: NO
d. tin with chlorine ANSWER: YES
Arrange the following in order of increasing atomic radius: Sn, K, Ag, C, Pb
Arrange the following in order of decreasing ionization energy: Sn, Si, Pb, I, In.
ANSWER: Si> I > Sn > In > Pb
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