If you like us, please share us on social media.
The latest UCD Hyperlibrary newsletter is now complete, check it out.
Copyright (c) 2006-2014 MindTouch Inc.
This file and accompanying files are licensed under the MindTouch Master Subscription Agreement (MSA).
At any time, you shall not, directly or indirectly: (i) sublicense, resell, rent, lease, distribute, market, commercialize or otherwise transfer rights or usage to: (a) the Software, (b) any modified version or derivative work of the Software created by you or for you, or (c) MindTouch Open Source (which includes all non-supported versions of MindTouch-developed software), for any purpose including timesharing or service bureau purposes; (ii) remove or alter any copyright, trademark or proprietary notice in the Software; (iii) transfer, use or export the Software in violation of any applicable laws or regulations of any government or governmental agency; (iv) use or run on any of your hardware, or have deployed for use, any production version of MindTouch Open Source; (v) use any of the Support Services, Error corrections, Updates or Upgrades, for the MindTouch Open Source software or for any Server for which Support Services are not then purchased as provided hereunder; or (vi) reverse engineer, decompile or modify any encrypted or encoded portion of the Software.
A complete copy of the MSA is available at http://www.mindtouch.com/msa
Xenon is an element under the Noble gases group and is on period 7 of the periodic table. This element is most notable for its bright luminescence in light bulbs. Xenon is unique for being the first noble gas element to be synthesized into a compound.
Element number: 54
Atomic symbol: Xe
Atomic weight: 131.29
Electron configuration: [Kr]5s24d105p6
Melting point: 161.4 K
Boiling point: 165.03 K
Density: 0.005887 grams per cubic centimeter
Phase at room temperature: Gas
Family: Group 18 Nobles Gases
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 18, 8
Ionization energy: 1st: 1170.4 kJ·mol-1
2nd: 2046.4 kJ·mol-1
3rd: 3099.4 kJ·mol-1
Xenon was first discovered in England by chemists Sir William Ramsay and Morris William Travers on July 12, 1898, after discovering Krypton and Neon. Since Xenon is an odorless and colorless gas that exists only in trace amounts in the atmosphere, it is very difficult to take notice of it. Xenon and other noble gases were discovered by evaporating liquified air and collecting the residue. By cooling the air to below the boiling point (from gas to liquid), the air would condense to a liquid. The liquid air is then gradually warmed up, vaporizing lighter gases such as oxygen and nitrogen. Xenon gas can then be confined separately from the atmosphere. Collecting xenon is expensive because there is less than 1 parts per million in volume of the Earth's atmosphere.
Xenon is most commonly used in light bulbs and as a general anesthetic. When it is trapped inside of a bulb, electricity discharged through the gaseous xenon would emit a bright light of the entire spectrum. These light bulbs are very common in automobile headlights, such as the Audi A4 light bulbs. Other common uses of Xenon are in X-rays, plasma display panels, and anesthetics.
HID Xenon lights are brighter, stable and more economically friendly than regular halogen light bulbs. They do not look like regular halogen bulbs because halogen bulbs contain a bright filament. Instead, the xenon bulbs contain electrically charged xenon gas and metal halide; whenever they collide, the bulb becomes illuminated.
As a solid noble gas, solid xenon is structured as face centered cubic (FCC). This is also known as the CCP, which is the cubic closest packing. This crystal lattice structure is the closest that atoms can be packed into a cube. In the FCC structure, there is one atom at each corner and one atom at each face of the cube. The structure fits four atoms in each lattice cube. Face centered cubic structures are the most dense.
Located in group 18 of the periodic table, the noble gases have a full valence electron shell. Because their valence shells are filled, the elements of group 18 are chemically stable. These elements all carry the common characteristic of being odorless monatomic gases under STP.
Xenon is an element under the Noble gases group and on period 7 of the periodic table. This element is most notable for its bright luminescent in light bulbs. Xenon is unique for being the first noble gas element to be synthesized into a compound. Xenon differs from the other noble gases by being heavier and denser than most.
|Element||Atomic number||Atomic Mass (g)||Boiling Point (K)||1st Ionization Energies (kJ/ mol)||Atomic Radii pm|
Xenon has the second most stable isotopes (next to tin). There are a total of nine naturally existing isotopes. Xenon isotopes differ because they have a different number of neutrons, adding to the atomic mass of protons and neutrons. There are also over 18 radioactive isotopes of xenon -- radioactive isotopes are chemically unstable, therefore they are highly reactive. Radioactive isotopes essentially have the same characteristics as the element because they are still neutral atoms. Isotopes have the same amount of protons and electrons, so the structure of the atom hardly changes. Isotopes are also specified mainly by their mass number. For instance, Xe with an atomic number of 54 and 78 neutrons is labeled as Xe-132.
Isotopes are necessary for radioactive decay. Radioactive decay is the breakdown of the nucleus due to instability. In the nucleus, the neutrons surround the protons in order to keep the nucleus stable. The unstable isotopes undergo radioactive decay because there is an imbalance of neutrons attach to neutrons rather than neutrons attach to protons. This instability decays a neutron into a proton and an electron. We know that the number of proton determines the element, however under this decay, we have an additional proton that changes the entire element. This process is called Beta Radiation. This process helps us find the half life of unstable atoms. The half life is the time it takes for half of the atom to decay. Half lives help us date the time of certain matter. Some isotopes have really long half lives, while some end in milliseconds. Xenon isotopes such as Xe-129, Xe-130, and Xe-136 are used as tools to measure the dating of the solar system with half lives.
Green Circle: Nuclei
Red Circle: Neutrons
Blue Circle: Protons
Orange Circle: Electrons
1. Row 1, Group 1: This is a stable atom, it has neutrons that surround protons. The interaction between the proton and neutron makes it stable.
2. Row 1, Group 2: This is an unstable atom, it has neutrons surround neutrons. The balance between protons and neutrons are off. This is an unstable Isotope.
3. Row 2, Group 1: The neutron is "confused", it is unbalance so it needs to form a proton and an electron.
4. Row 2, Group 2: The neutron then transforms into an electron and a proton, therefore changing the element itself. The Electron is shot off as beta radiation.
Noble gases have always been believed to be inert with other elements. However, in 1962, Neil Barlett was able to form chemical compounds with xenon. Most of the known xenon compounds contain the reducing agents (gain electrons) atoms fluorine or oxygen. Xenon Halides: a binary compound consisting of a halogen and an element with a higher ionization
Xenon Difluoride (XeF2)
Xe + F2 → XeF2
Xenon Tetrafluoride (XeF4)
Xe + 2F2 → XeF4
Xenon Hexafluoride (XeF6)
Xe + 3F2 → XeF6
Fluorine is the ONLY ELEMENT that directly reacts with Xenon. So how do we get XeO3?
Xenon Halides are reactive with other compounds such as water.
XeF2 + 3H2O → XeO3 + 6HF
The Xe has a total of 8 outside shell electrons while the Fluorine 7 valence electrons. Xe's outside shell electrons are very far away from the center, therefore Xenon cannot possibly pay attention/attract all of the electrons. Fluorine is smaller, therefore is has a stronger positive attraction to the few electrons it has left. Fluorine is the only element that reacts with Xe because it is the most electronegative. In other words, it is the only element that is strong enough to pull electrons out of the stable xenon.
An NSF funded Project