If you like us, please share us on social media.
The latest UCD Hyperlibrary newsletter is now complete, check it out.

ChemWiki: The Dynamic Chemistry E-textbook > Organic Chemistry > Conjugation > Electrophilic Attack on Conjugated Dienes-Kinetic and Thermodynamic Control > Markovnikov Addition

Markovnikov Addition

Table of Contents

Markovnikov addition, also called Markovnikov's rule, states that a protic acid (HX) will add to an alkene such that the proton will bond to the less substituted carbon.


During this addition, the carbocation intermediate bares a positive charge on the most substituted carbon. The more substituted carbon, the more stable (tertiary > secondar > primary > methyl). If the reverse occurs, that is the more electronegative atom (X) ends up bonding to the least substituted carbon, it is termed anti-Markovnikov addition. The figure below shows a figure of both additions:



Fig. 1. Markovnikov and anti-Markovnikov additions of HBr to 1-methylcyclohexene.

You must to post a comment.
Last modified
18:43, 1 Oct 2013



(not set)
(not set)

Creative Commons License Unless otherwise noted, content in the UC Davis ChemWiki is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States License. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at copyright@ucdavis.edu. Questions and concerns can be directed toward Prof. Delmar Larsen (dlarsen@ucdavis.edu), Founder and Director. Terms of Use