Vicinal Syn Dihydroxylation
Osmium tetroxide oxidizes alkenes to give glycols through syn addition. A glycol, also known as a vicinal diol, is a compound with two -OH groups on adjacent carbons.
The reaction with OsO4 is a concerted process that has a cyclic intermediate and no rearrangements. Vicinal syn dihydroxylation complements the epoxide-hydrolysis sequence which constitutes an anti dihydroxylation of an alkene (section 12-10). When an alkene reacts with osmium tetroxide, stereocenters can form in the glycol product. Cis alkenes give meso products and trans alkenes give racemic mixtures.
OsO4 is prepared by the reaction of Os + 2O2. Since Osmium tetroxide is expensive and highly toxic, the reaction with alkenes has been modified. Catalytic amounts of OsO4 and stoichiometric amounts of an oxidizing agent such as hydrogen peroxide are now used to eliminate some hazards. Also, an older reagent that was used instead of OsO4 was potassium permanganate, KMnO4. Although syn diols will result from the reaction of KMnO4 and an alkene, potassium permanganate is less useful since it gives poor yields of the product because of overoxidation.
Example: Dihydroxylation of 1-ethyl-1-cycloheptene
Antitumor drugs have been formed by using dihydroxylation. This method has been applied to the enantioselective synthesis of ovalicin, which is a class of fungal-derived products called antiangiogenesis agents. These antitumor products can cut off the blood supply to solid tumors. A derivative of ovalicin, TNP-470, is chemically stable, nontoxic, and noninflammatory. TNP-470 has been used in research to determine its effectiveness in treating cancer of the breast, brain, cervix, liver, and prostate.
1. Give the major product.
2. What is the product in the dihydroxylation of (Z)-3-hexene?
3. What is the product in the dihydroxylation of (E)-3-hexene?
4. Draw the intermediate of this reaction.
5. Fill in the missing reactants, reagents, and product.
1. A syn-1,2-ethanediol is formed. There is no stereocenter in this particular reaction. The OH groups are on the same side.
2. Meso-3,4-hexanediol is formed. There are 2 stereocenters in this reaction.
3. A racemic mixture of 3,4-hexanediol is formed. There are 2 stereocenters in both products.
4. A cyclic osmic ester is formed.
5. The Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction is needed in the first box to form the cyclohexene. The second box needs a reagent to reduce the intermediate cyclic ester (not shown). The third box has the product: 1,2-cyclohexanediol.
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