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ChemWiki: The Dynamic Chemistry E-textbook > Organic Chemistry > Organic Chemistry With a Biological Emphasis > Chapter 1: Introduction to organic structure and bonding I

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Chapter 1: Introduction to organic structure and bonding I

Section 1.1: Atomic orbitals and electron configuration

  1. The atom
  2. Atomic orbitals
  3. Electron configuration

Section 1.2: Chemical Bonds

  1. Ionic bonds
  2. Covalent bonds and Lewis structures
  3. Formal charges

Section 1.3: Drawing organic structures

  1. Common bonding patterns in organic structures
  2. Using the 'line structure' convention
  3. Constitutional isomers
  4. The Index of Hydrogen Deficiency

Section 1.4: Functional groups and organic nomenclature

  1. Common functional groups in organic compounds
  2. Naming organic compounds
  3. Abbreviated organic structures

Section 1.5: Valence bond theory

  1. Formation of sigma bonds: the H2 molecule
  2. Hybrid orbitals: sp3 hybridization and tetrahedral bonding
  3. Formation of pi bonds: sp2 and sp hybridization
  4. The valence bonding picture in carbocations, carbanions, and carbon free radicals

Section 1.P: Problems for Chapter 1

 

As we begin our study of organic chemistry, there will be a lot of review of things that you have probably learned already from your college or high school General Chemistry course, but there will likely be several concepts that are new to you as well. We will start off with the most basic concept in chemistry: the atom.  We'll review some essential facts about the composition of an atom, and then remind ourselves about how electrons occupy 'orbitals' surrounding the nucleus. Then we will start talking about how atoms - particularly atoms of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen,  the most important elements in organic chemistry  - share pairs of electrons to form covalent bonds. At first, this discussion will be conducted at the simplest possible level, as we review how to draw 'Lewis structures', assign 'formal charges', and recognize common organic bonding patterns. Later, we will bring in the 'valence bond' theory and the concept of 'hybrid orbitals' in order to help explain the  observed three-dimensional geometry of organic structures.

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Last Modified
14:44, 15 Apr 2014

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