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DVC Chem 121: Rusay

General Chemistry
Chapter references are for Zumdahl's Chemistry 7th edition
Instructor: Dr. Ron Rusay

The teaching style of these sections of Chem 121 incorporates many innovations in undergraduate teaching methods and technological materials, which depart from, but are built upon traditional textbook-lecture centered science courses. The organization and approach are likely quite different from other courses that you are experienced in and comfortable with. The material will not be treated linearly as simple page turning in relation to the course textbook. You will be challenged personally and collectively. You will be asked to find and access a variety of information, to appraise its value, and to use it constructively to answer questions, to solve problems, and to build knowledge. You will have various assets and tools available that go well beyond the textbook and lecture notes. You will need to decide how to use them effectively, and to develop your own personal learning plan accordingly. Not all knowledge in chemistry will be provided to you to repeat back accurately for a grade as you are accustomed to in most courses. Your plan will most likely be different than anyone else's. Without a plan that you can use productively and adjust as the course progresses, you will likely not meet your personal objectives. This metacognitive approach to teaching-learning will translate to any of your other courses and more importantly empower you to effectively address any topic in any discipline at anytime in your careers.

Chapter headings that are colored blue are from the first semester of the course. Mastery of the fundamentals in these chapters are integral to the understanding of the chapters that will be considered in the follow-on second semester chapters which are colored in bold black.

Chemical Foundations

1.1 Chemistry: An Overview
1.2 The Scientific Method
1.3 Units of Measurement
1.4 Uncertainty in Measurement
1.5 Significant Figures and Calculations
1.6 Dimensional Analysis
1.7 Temperature
1.8 Density
1.9 Classification of Matter

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

2.1 The Early History of Chemistry
2.2 Fundamental Chemical Laws
2.3 Dalton's Atomic Theory
2.4 Early Experiments to Characterize the Atom
2.5 The Modern View of Atomic Structure: An Introduction
2.6 Molecules and Ions
2.7 An Introduction to the Periodic Table
2.8 Naming Simple Compounds

Chemical Equilibrium

13.1 The Equilibrium Condition
13.2 The Equilibrium Constant
13.3 Equilibrium Expressions Involving Pressures
13.4 Heterogeneous Equilibria
13.5 Applications of the Equilibrium Constant
13.6 Solving Equilibrium Problems
13.7 Le Chatelier's Principle


3.1 Counting by Weighing
3.2 Atomic Masses
3.3 The Mole
3.4 Molar Mass
3.5 Percent Composition of Compounds
3.6 Determining the Formula of a Compound
3.7 Chemical Equations
3.8 Balancing Chemical Equations
3.9 Stoichiometric Calculations: Amounts of Reactants and Products
3.10 Calculations Involving a Limiting Reactant

Acids and Bases

14.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases
14.2 Acid Strength
14.3 The pH Scale
14.4 Calculating the pH of Strong Acid Solutions
14.5 Calculating the pH of Weak Acid Solutions
14.6 Bases
14.7 Polyprotic Acids
14.8 Acid-Base Properties of Salts
14.9 The Effect of Structure on Acid-Base Properties
14.10 Acid-Base Properties of Oxides
14.11 The Lewis Acid-Base Model
14.12 Strategy for Solving Acid-Base Problems: A Summary

Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry

4.1 Water, the Common Solvent
4.2 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions: Strong and Weak Electrolytes
4.3 The Composition of Solutions
4.4 Types of Chemical Reactions
4.5 Precipitation Reactions
4.6 Describing Reactions in Solution
4.7 Stoichiometry of Precipitation Reactions
4.8 Acid-Base Reactions
4.9 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
4.10 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations


5.1 Pressure
5.2 The Gas Laws of Boyle, Charles, and Avogadro
5.3 The Ideal Gas Law
5.4 Gas Stoichiometry
5.5 Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
5.6 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
5.7 Effusion and Diffusion
5.8 Real Gases
5.9 Chemistry in the Atmosphere
5.10 Characteristics of Several Real Gases

Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy

16.1 Spontaneous Processes and Entropy
16.2 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
16.3 The Effect of Temperature on Spontaneity
16.4 Free Energy
16.5 Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions
16.6 Free Energy and Chemical Reactions
16.7 The Dependence of Free Energy on Pressure
16.8 Free Energy and Equilibrium
16.9 Free Energy and Work


6.1 The Nature of Energy
6.2 Enthalpy and Calorimetry
6.3 Hess's Law
6.4 Standard Enthalpies of Formation
6.5 Present Sources of Energy
6.6 New Energy Sources


17.1 Galvanic Cells
17.2 Standard Reduction Potential
17.3 Cell Potential, Electrical Work, and Free Energy
17.4 Dependence of Cell Potential on Concentration
17.5 Batteries
17.6 Corrosion
17.7 Electrolysis
17.8 Commercial Electrolytic Processes

Atomic Structure and Periodicity

7.1 Electromagnetic Radiation
7.2 The Nature of Matter
7.3 The Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen
7.4 The Bohr Model
7.5 The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom
7.6 Quantum Numbers
7.7 Orbital Shapes and Energies
7.8 Electron Spin and the Pauli Principle
7.9 Polyelectronic Atoms
7.10 The History of the Periodic Table
7.11 The Aufbau Principles and the Periodic Table
7.12 Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties
7.13 The Properties of a Group: The Alkali Metals

The Nucleus: A Chemist's View

18.1 Nuclear Stability and Radioactive Decay
18.2 The Kinetics of Radioactive Decay
18.3 Nuclear Transformations
18.4 Detection and Uses of Radioactivity
18.5 Thermodynamic Stability of the Nucleus
18.6 Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion
18.7 Effects of Radiation

Bonding: General Concepts

8.1 Types of Chemical Bonds
8.2 Electronegativity
8.3 Bond Polarity and Dipole Moments
8.4 Ions: Electron Configurations and Sizes
8.5 Formation of Binary Ionic Compounds
8.6 Partial Ionic Character of Covalent Bonds
8.7 The Covalent Chemical Bond: A Model
8.8 Covalent Bond Energies and Chemical Reactions
8.9 The Localized Electron Bonding Model
8.10 Lewis Structures
8.11 Exceptions to the Octet Rule
8.12 Resonance
8.13 Molecular Structure: The VSEPR Model

The Representative Elements: Groups 1A Through 4A

19.1 A Survey of the Representative Elements
19.2 The Group 1A Elements
19.3 Hydrogen
19.4 The Group 2A Elements
19.5 The Group 3A Elements
19.6 The Group 4A Elements

Covalent Bonding: Orbitals

9.1 Hybridization and the Localized Electron Model
9.2 The Molecular Orbital Model
9.3 Bonding in Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules
9.4 Bonding in Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules
9.5 Combining the Localized Electron and Molecular Orbital Models

The Representative Elements: Groups 5A Through 8A

20.1 The Group 5A Elements
20.2 The Chemistry of Nitrogen
20.3 The Chemistry of Phosphorus
20.4 The Group 6A Elements
20.5 The Chemistry of Oxygen
20.6 The Chemistry of Sulfur
20.7 The Group 7A Elements
20.8 The Group 8A Elements

Liquids and Solids

10.1 Intermolecular Forces
10.2 The Liquid State
10.3 An Introduction to Structures and Types of Solids
10.4 Structure and Bonding in Metals
10.5 Carbon and Silicon: Network Atomic Solids
10.6 Molecular Solids
10.7 Ionic Solids
10.8 Vapor Pressure and Changes of State
10.9 Phase Diagrams

Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry

21.1 The Transition Metals: A Survey
21.2 The First-Row Transition Metals
21.3 Coordination Compounds
21.4 Isomerism
21.5 Bonding in Complex Ions: The Localized Electron Model
21.6 The Crystal Field Model
21.7 The Biologic Importance of Coordination Complexes
21.8 Metallurgy and Iron and Steel Production

Properties of Solutions

11.1 Solution Composition
11.2 The Energies of Solution Formation
11.3 Factors Affecting Solubility
11.4 The Vapor Pressures of Solutions
11.5 Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point Depression
11.6 Osmotic Pressure
11.7 Colligative Properties of Electrolyte Solutions
11.8 Colloids


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