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Mulliken Electronegativity

Mulliken Electronegativity is simply the average of the first ionization energy and electron affinity. Unlike Pauling Electronegativity, Mulliken's equations are absolute and need no starting reference point. (from reference 1)

xm = (IE1+EA1)/2 (from reference 1)



Mulliken's background and the significance of this equation. He did all this in 1934! (reference 2)

The Equation

Derivation of Mulliken's equation, what each of the terms are, and what this equation gives you

Why it is significant

How this equation is better than other predictions of electronegativity, and how this equation is worse.

Mulliken's equation predicts electronegativity better than just looking at the IE and EA


  1. Mulliken, R. S. (1934). "A New Electroaffinity Scale; Together with Data on Valence States and on Valence Ionization Potentials and Electron Affinities". Journal of Chemical Physics 2: 782–793.
  2. Housecroft Catherine, Alan Sharpe. "Inorganic Chemistry". Essex: Pearson Education Limited, 2008.

Outside Links

  • This is not meant for references used for constructing the module, but as secondary and unvetted information available at other site
  • Link to outside sources. Wikipedia entries should probably be referenced here.


Be careful not to copy from existing textbooks. Originality is rewarded. Make up some practice problems for the future readers. Five original with varying difficulty questions (and answers) are ideal.


  • Name #1 here (if anonymous, you can avoid this) with university affiliation

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Last Modified
10:16, 2 Oct 2013

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