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ChemWiki: The Dynamic Chemistry E-textbook > Wikitexts > UC Davis > UCD Chem 124A: Kauzlarich > ChemWiki Module Topics > Solid Metallic Elements

Solid Metallic Elements

 

Introduction

Solid Metallic elements play a very important role in the everyday lives of each and every one of us. Many of these things have to do with the chemistry behind them. This includes melting points, hardness, and tensile strength. Also, many of these elements are good conductors of heat and electricity. 

Heading #1

The term solid metallic elements refers to the element being a solid at 298 K. All metals except for Hg are solid at that temperature; however, there are also a few with relatively low melting points that put them right on the edge. These include Cs (301 K) and Ga (303 K). Most of these metals crystallize with ccp, hcp, or bcc lattices. 

Many of these solid metallic elements are polymorphic, meaning that their structure changes depend on the conditions of the temperature and/or pressure. 

Below here is a chart of the melting points of the solid metallic elements. Most of these elements have high melting points, allowing them to be solids at room temperature, rather than liquid (with the exception of Mercury). 

Metal

Melting Point
(oC) (oF)
Admiralty Brass 900 - 940 1650 - 1720
Aluminum 660 1220
Aluminum Bronze 600 - 655 1190 - 1215
Antimony 630 1170
Beryllium 1285 2345
Beryllium Copper 865 - 955 1587 - 1750
Bismuth 271.4 520.5
Brass 930 1710
Cadmium 321 610
Cast Iron, gray 1175 - 1290 2150 - 2360
Chromium 1860 3380
Cobalt 1495 2723
Copper 1084 1983
Cupronickel 1170 - 1240 2140 - 2260
Gold 1063 1945
Hastelloy C 1320 - 1350 2410 - 2460
Inconel 1390 - 1425 2540 - 2600
Incoloy 1390 - 1425 2540 - 2600
Iridium 2450 4440
Iron 1536 2797
Lead 327.5 621
Magnesium 650 1200
Manganese 1244 2271
Manganese bronze 865 - 890 1590 - 1630
Mercury -38.86 -37.95
Molybdenum 2620 4750
Monel 1300 - 1350 2370 - 2460
Nickel 1453 2647
Niobium (Columbium) 2470 4473
Osmium 3025 5477
Platinum 1770 3220
Plutonium 640 1180
Potassium 63.3 146
Red Brass 990 - 1025 1810 - 1880
Rhodium 1965 3569
Selenium 217 423
Silicon 1411 2572
Silver 961 1760
Sodium 97.83 208
Carbon Steel 1425 - 1540 2600 - 2800
Stainless Steel 1510 2750
Tantalum 2980 5400
Thorium 1750 3180
Tin 232 449.4
Titanium 1670 3040
Tungsten 3400 6150
Uranium 1132 2070
Vanadium 1900 3450
Yellow Brass 905 - 932 1660 - 1710
Zinc 419.5 787
Zirconium 1854 3369

The Solid metallic elements in this periodic table go from the elements include the dark blue (group 1), the red (group 2), the yellow (transition metals), and the light blue (metalloids). 

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1 H   He
-259.14 -272
2 Li Be   B C N O F Ne
180.54 1278 2300 3500 -209.9 -218.4 -219.62 -248.6
3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
97.8 650 660.37 1410 44.1 112.8 -100.98 -189.3
4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
63.65 839 1539 1660 1890 1857 1245 1535 1495 1453 1083 419.58 29.78 937.4 817 217 -7.2 -157.2
5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
38.89 764 1523 1852 2468 2617 2200 2250 1966 1552 961.93 320.9 156.61 231.9 630 449.5 113.5 -111.9
6 Cs Ba * Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
28.5 725   2150 2996 3410 3180 3045 2410 1772 1064.43 -38.87 303.5 327.5 271.3 254 302 -71
7 Fr Ra ** Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Uun Uuu Uub  
27 700   ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
   
* La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
  920 795 935 1010 ? 1072 822 1311 1360 1412 1470 1522 1545 824 1656
** Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr
  1050 1750 1600 1132 640 639.5 994 1340 ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

 

Element Groups (Families)

Alkali Earth Alkaline Earth Transition Metals
Rare Earth Other Metals Metalloids
Non-Metals Halogens Noble Gases

Although these pictures above help to see the relationships between all the solid metallic elements, there is an even better picture found in the Inorganic Chemistry textbook, cited below. 

Another important factor besides melting point, is the crystallization structure of the metals. The first type is a CCP (cubic close packing) crystallization, also called face centered cubic, shown below. This is the most common type of crystals and minerals. 

 

imgres.jpg

this image can be found at seas.upenn.edu

The next type of crystal structure is hexagonal close packed (HCP). 

imgres.jpg

this image can be found at seas.upenn.edu

The last type of crystal structure is body centered cell (BCC). 

imgres.jpg

this image can be found at mrsec.wisc.edu

To sum up all the information above, a useful periodic table is shown below and can be found at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periodi...tal_structure)

 

bcc
body centered cubic
hcp
hexagonal close packed
fcc
face centered cubic(cubic close packed)
unusual structure unknown / uncertain nonmetal
H                                   He
453.69
Li
bcc
1560
Be
hcp
                    B C N O F Ne
370.87
Na
bcc
923
Mg
hcp
                    933.47
Al
fcc
Si P S Cl Ar
336.53
K
bcc
1115
Ca
fcc
1814
Sc
hcp
1941
Ti
hcp
2183
V
bcc
2180
Cr
bcc
1519
Mn
1811
Fe
bcc
1768
Co
hcp
1728
Ni
fcc
1357.8
Cu
fcc
692.68
Zn
301.91
Ga
Ge As Se Br Kr
312.46
Rb
bcc
1050
Sr
fcc
1799
Y
hcp
2128
Zr
hcp
2750
Nb
bcc
2896
Mo
bcc
2430
Tc
hcp
2607
Ru
hcp
2237
Rh
fcc
1828
Pd
fcc
1235
Ag
fcc
594
Cd
430
In
505
Sn
904
Sb
Te I Xe
302
Cs
bcc
1000
Ba
bcc
  2506
Hf
hcp
3290
Ta
bcc
3422
W
bcc
3186
Re
hcp
3033
Os
hcp
2446
Ir
fcc
1768
Pt
fcc
1337.33
Au
fcc
234.32
Hg
577
Tl
hcp
600.61
Pb
fcc
544.7
Bi
Po At Rn
Fr Ra
bcc
  Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Uut Uuq Uup Uuh Uus Uuo
                                 
  La Ce
fcc
Pr Nd Pm
hcp
Sm Eu
bcc
Gd
hcp
Tb
hcp
Dy
hcp
Ho
hcp
Er
hcp
Tmhcp Yb
fcc
Luhcp  
  Ac
fcc
Th
fcc
Pa U Np Pu Am
hcp
Cm
hcp
Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr  

 

References 

 

  1. Housecroft, Catherine E., Inorganic Chemistry, Pearson 2008 (p 153)
  2. seas.upenn.edu
  3. mrsec.wisc.edu

Problems

1.) Sort the following elements in order by lowest melting point to highest melting point: Fe, Db, Os, Pt, Ti

2.) Explain why solid metallic elements are important in our daily lives.

3.) Of the three crystallization structures, which has the highest packing efficiency.

4.)  Name the crystallization structure for each of the following elements: Ag, Au, Al, Pb, Cr

5.) Which solid metallic element is the most abundant on Earth. 

Answers

1.) The elements are arranged from highest to lowest melting point Fe (1536 C), Ti (1670 C), Pt (1770 C), and Os (3025 C).  No melting point could be found for Db.

2.) Solid metallic elements are important in our everyday lives because we use the in so many ways such as in the construction and support of buildings, automotives, ships. etc. The elements play a vast role in our lifes and quite frankly are essential in the sense of society and the way we live.

3.) This question can simply not be answered because the required images that are needed to solve it are not present and so this question cannot be answered. (consider acquiring images or choosing a different question)

4.) Ag is face centered cubic, Au is face centered cubic, Al is face centered cubic, Pb is face centered cubic and Cr is body centered cubic.

5.) Aluminum is the most abundant metallic element on earth. This light metal comprises more than eight percent of the earth's crust.

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Last Modified
10:17, 2 Oct 2013

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